27 diciembre, 2008

Inversion with negative adverbials: Key

Adverbial + auxiliary +subject + main verb.
Never before have I expereinced such kindness.

Negative adverbs include adverbs with an explicit negative meaning, such as never, not and nowhere, as well as adverbs with an implied negative meaning, such as hardly, scarcely and seldom.
5. a. No longer does our country need to rely on foreign ...
b. Under no circunstances should you borrow money...
c. Only now are we seeing the...
d. Rarely has a change of government had such...
e. Only then did he realised he had left...
f. On no account should you reveal the details of your...
g. Never before has this country witnessed such a serious...
h. Seldom does a politician admit publicly that he has...
i. Not only did George have to pay a large fine but he also had to ...

Cleft Sentences: Key

It + be + information emphasized +relative clause
(a noun phrase) (who, that)
Ex: It is money that people care about.
What + information emphasized + be + complements
Ex: what I like is the way she smiles

6. a. what you need is a few days’ rest...
b. It is money that people care about nowadays.
c. what we need is someone to help us, not someone to...
d. What I like (about him) is the way he always listens...
e. It is his attitude towards other people that really ...
f. What I don’t understand is why you had to...
g. It wasn’t me who decided to take a short cut...
h. What the world needs is love, peace and...
7. (suggested answers)
b. ...the cultural variety.
c. ...idleness... annoys me
d. ...speaking.
e. ...listening...
f. ...education.
g. ...my father ... be a hard worker.
h. ...Leticia... she likes to be the queen.

21 diciembre, 2008


1. just 2. already 3. still 4. yet 5. just 6. just 7. yet, already 8. yet 9. still 10. still 11. yet 12. already 13. still 14. still 15. yet 16. still

Grammar: time expressions with the present perfect.

1. 1 Ever 2 yet 3 since 4 just 5 Still 6 for 7 never 8 already 9 always
2. 1 For 2 since 3 just 4 ever 5 never/always 6 still 7 yet 8 already
3. 1 I don’t think I’ve ever thanked you for all your help.
2 Peter’s just lost his watch. He’s outside looking for it.
3 Sally hasn’t passed her driving test yet. But she’s only eighteen, so there’s plenty of time.
4 Don’t worry about booking seats. I’ve already done it.
5 Richard still hasn’t returned my call, you know. I rang him yesterday. If he doesn’t call soon, then our relationship is over.

20 diciembre, 2008


1 Key vocabulary
1 warlord
2 lucrative
3 embargo
4 roam
5 brazen
6 clan
7 lawless
8 chaos
9 shack.
10 ambush
2 What do you know?
1 b; 2 b; 3 c; 4 a; 5 c
3 Comprehension check
1 T; 2 F; 3 T; 4 T; 5 F; 6 F; 7 T; 8 F
4 Vocabulary 1 Collocations
1 e; 2 f; 3 a; 4 c; 5 h; 6 d; 7 b; 8 g
5 Vocabulary 2 Find the word
1 exhibit
2 lapse into
3 elders
4 from scratch
5 keenness
6 swell
7 no-go zone
8 awash with
6 Vocabulary 3 Prepositions
1 into 5 of
2 at 6 of
3 with 7 to
4 on 8 over


1 Key vocabulary
1 d; 2 f; 3 b; 4 h; 5 a; 6 e; 7 c; 8 j; 9 g; 10 i
2 Find the information
1 Mogadishu
2 Mohamed Siad Barre
3 1991
4 153
5 U N Development Programme
6 3,000
3 Comprehension check
1 c; 2 b; 3 c; 4 c
4 Vocabulary 1 Noun + Noun Collocations
1 d; 2 h; 3 a; 4 f; 5 g; 6 b; 7 c; 8 e
5 Vocabulary 2 Prepositions
1 for
2 for
3 of
4 with
5 to
6 for
7 over
8 with
6 Vocabulary 3 Word-building
1 argument
2 failure
3 attempt
4 establishment
5 procedure
6 encouragement
7 threat
8 challenge

15 diciembre, 2008


1. suggestions:
go by bus = there may be a bus lane.
go by taxi = the driver may know a short cut to avoid the traffic jam.
go by train = avoids the traffic jam.
go by motorbike = can overtake the cars in the traffic jam.
cars and taxis: get a lift, share a taxi, hitchhike, put your foot down,
sit in the passenger seat, stuck in a traffic jam, get in/out of, a taxi rank, hail a taxi
buses and trains: a double-decker, take the underground, buy a return ticket, reserve a firstclass seat, catch the number 9, miss the inter city express, use public transport, pay the fare,it’s delayed, go on the sleeper, miss your connection, change at Swindon, sit on the top deck,a buffet car, get on/off, a bus lane
Note: we say get in/out of cars and taxis, but get on/off buses, trains, planes and boats.
a. bus = follows a fixed route from bus stop to bus stop round a town or city.
coach = does long distance journeys/goes from one town to another/more luxurious than a bus.
b. train = goes on rails from railway station in one town to the next.
tram = like a bus on rails that stops at tram stops and follows a fixed route round a town or city.
c. helicopter = aircraft with large metal blades on top that spin and lift it into the air.
hovercraft = a vehicle that can move over both land and water, raising itself above the surface by blowing air downwards.
d. passenger = someone travelling on a bus, train, plane, etc.
pedestrian = somebody walking in the street.
e. travel = go from one place to another.
commute = travel to work by the same route everyday.
1 At the weekend I love to ride into the country on my bike.
We went on a ride in a helicopter last week.
The bus ride from the airport was very pleasant.
2 The quickest way to get here is to take a taxi.
We took the 12.45 to Milan, and changed there.
How long does it take to get there?
3 Hurry up! We’ll be late if we don’t catch the next bus.
I’ll have to go I’m afraid. I have a train to catch.
If we don’t leave before 5 we’ll be caught in a traffic jam.
4 It’s a wonderful drive through the mountains into Switzerland.
I learned to drive with my dad, and passed my test four days after my
seventeenth birthday.
Do you need a special licence to drive a minibus?
1. go on an expedition 2. go on an excursion 3. go on a walk 4. go on a voyage 5. go on a journey 6. go on a business trip 7. go on a boat trip 8. go on a guided tour.
a. How much is it to the next stop?
Passenger getting on a bus at a bus stop.
b. A return to Reading, please – with a student travel card.
Passenger at railway station ticket office or on a train.
c. May I see your passport, please?
Customs official at check in desk at the airport.
d. Would you like a lift?
Car driver offering a friend a lift home.
e. Put your seatbelt on, please.
Car driver talking to passenger or flight attendant on a flight.
f. Where to, mate?
Taxi driver at the start of journey.
g. On today’s flight we will be flying at 10,000 feet.
Pilot at start of flight – in plane.

13 diciembre, 2008

2 B Present perfect continuous- key

a 2 A has it been raining B It’s been raining since... 3 A have you had that jacket B I’ve had it for... 4 A has he worked/been working here B He’s worked/been working here since... 5 A have they been married B They’ve been married for... 6 A have you been learning Russian B I’ve been learning Russian for....
b 2 Have you been waiting for a long ... 3 have you been doing 4 I’ve been shopping 5 They’ve been playing ... 6 They’ve been watching a sad film.

2 A present perfect or Past simple -key

1. a 2 I’ve been 3 did you go? 4 finished 5 I’ve already been 6 did you go? 7 went
b 2 taught 3 have just come back 4 have you been? 5 was 6 started 7 haven’t finished 8 have you been married 9 had 10 did you meet 11 went 12 have known 13 got 14 were you 15 I’ve just met.

3 Present perfect simple or present perfect continuous- key

1. 2 c 3 a 4 b 5 c 6 b
2. 2 Joanna has been painting her room. She’s painted 2 walls. She’s decided she doesn’t like... 3 Tessa has been working hard. She’s had 10 cups...She’s finished work now. 4 Jake has been using the phone. He’s been talking for an hour. He’s phoned four friends. 5 N & R have been cleaning the house. They’ve been working since 2 o’clock. They haven’t finished yet.
3. (2) I’ve been working (3) I’ve been working (4) I’ve been trying (5) I’ve been doing (6) I’ve done (7) I’ve been trying (8) I’ve tried (9) hasn’t answered.

2 Past simple or present perfect -key

1 a 2 b
2 (2) I did my first job when I (3) was 16, so I (4) have been a model... (5) have you travelled... (6) I have been to...(7) I went to... (8) have you visited ...?(9) no, I haven’t (10) Have you made...? (11) I have made... (12) I bought...
3 2 f 3 a 4 b 5d 6e
4 2 right 3has lived 4decided 5 have visited.
5 3 I have been... for 2 years. 4 I met... a year ago. 5 She has lived.... for 3 years. 6 we bought...

09 diciembre, 2008

Formal & Informal E-Mail (Reading and Writing Portfolio 11)

1 a) 1B 2A
b) b 4 c 2 d3
2 2 F 3T 4 T 5 F 6 T 7 T 8 F 9 T
3 2 regarding my enquiries
3 I received (your brochure)
4 I note (from your brochure)
5 Could you clarify...?
6 will not require (paymment)
7 In addition
8 We look forward to
4 2I 3I 4I 5I 6I 7F 8F 9I
5 2d 3e 4i 5j 6h 7a 8c 9f 10b
6 1 I am writing 2 received 3 Regarding 4 enquiries 5 we don’t yet know 6 In addition 7 unfortunately 8 however 9 telephone you 10 you would